Does baking heat from the top or bottom?

Chef's answer
For baking, heat needs to come from the bottom of the cooking space, not the top, though many people swear by fan-assisted baking (aka a convection oven), which makes the heat come evenly from all sides, including top and bottom. You need to adjust baking times if you have a fan-assisted oven.Jun 27, 2004
Frequently asked Questions 🎓
It's important to allow bread to cool all the way, or until it's just barely warm, to complete the cooking process before cutting. Rolls will take only about 20 minutes to cool. Bread baked in a loaf pan can take as long as 1 hour and a large free-form loaf can take as long as 1 1/2 hours to cool.31 Aug 2016
Cover a single large meatloaf with a piece of aluminum foil during cooking to keep it moist, but uncover it for the last 15 minutes of baking. "Meatloaf is highly suited to being either frozen raw for cooking later or cooked and frozen to reheat." Preheat oven to 350 degrees F. Lightly grease a 9-by-5-inch loaf pan.17 Dec 1997
A healthier cooking alternative to frying is grilling. Grilled meats have a reduced fat content. This is because the fat drips off as the food cooks. ... Grilled foods also have lower calorie content than fried foods.
Baking powder, not to be mistaken with baking soda, is a leavening agent usually used in baked goods such as cookies and cakes. It's a mixture of sodium bicarbonate, cream of tartar and cornstarch. When mixed with salt and coated on chicken it dries out the skin, leaving it crisp and crunchy.
Baking soda is alkaline, so it raises the pH level of chicken skin, breaking down the peptide bonds and jumpstarting the browning process, meaning the wings got browner and crispier faster than they would on their own.30 Jan 2019
Cover a single large meatloaf with a piece of aluminum foil during cooking to keep it moist, but uncover it for the last 15 minutes of baking. "Meatloaf is highly suited to being either frozen raw for cooking later or cooked and frozen to reheat." Preheat oven to 350 degrees F. Lightly grease a 9-by-5-inch loaf pan.17 Dec 1997
The advantage of roasted over fried chicken is less fat, particularly at places that use rotisserie cooking, a method that drains off fat. ... But unless consumers are willing to also strip roasted chicken of its tasty skin, the savings in calories and fat will not be very significant compared to fried chicken.12 Oct 1993
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